Biologically active substances as nanostructures: a biochemical aspect
Keywords:nanoscience, nanostructures, biochemistry, mechanism of action
Biologically active substances of an organism, colloids, and ion channels are nanosized. This is due to the fact that natural materials are characterized by an optimal structure that determines the maximum performance of their characteristic function with the minimal energy expenses. During millions of years of evolution the nature has developed an economical principle of constructing biological structures providing an effective and expedient relationship between their atoms, molecules, cells and organs, in particular strength, resistance, ability to interact with other objects, constant functioning of a huge number of not only organic, but also inorganic structures. In the process of evolution the irrational macro-, micro- and nanostructures or inefficiently functioning systems gradually disappeared as nature cannot use materials or processes that require the unreasonable energy expenses. The study of natural nanotechnologies in living systems is important since they are involved in physiological, biochemical, immunological processes of the body. The study of these unique characteristics of nanoparticles will allow developing new technologies for use in engineering, biology, medicine, physiology, agriculture, and other branches of the human activity. For physicians, pharmacologists, toxicologists, and pharmacists it is extremely important to determine the relationship between biochemical, physiological, and immunological processes in the human organism acting on the basis of nanoscale biologically active substances.
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